Ouagadougou or Ouaga for short is the inherited colonial capital city of former Upper Volta, now Burkina Faso. It is located at the heart of Burkina Faso and was created in the 15th century by the Mossi people who came from Dagomba, current Ghana (Skinner 1974; Balima 1996; Ouédraogo 2005). When the Mossi arrived in Ouagadougou, which was then called Wodgo [Wogodogo] (meaning in Moore: come to honor us), they found the Nioniosse, and the Ninisi (also known as the Samo people). The latter group were ousted out of the Wodgo or Wogodogo. Later, the French colonial army led by Voulet, and Chanoine conquered Ouagadougou on September 6, 1896 (Skinner 1974; Balima 1996). This contact changed the political, economic and urban landscape of Ouagadougou through the influence of European mode of government and urban architecture (Fourchard 1999). For instance, Skinner (1974: 25) indicates that:"The economic activities of the early French administrators in the Upper Volta did much to change the traditional economic life of Ouagadougou…. Many rural Mossi organized caravans to Ouagadougou where they sold their goods to get the necessary specie from the administration and merchants with which to pay the taxes. Inevitably some of the caravaneers stayed on and augmented the town’s population." As a trading center, Ouagadougou attracted more traders and business people, especially those from Nigeria (Hausa and Yoruba), Togo, Ghana, and Mali resulting into a population increase. According to Skinner (1974: 33), the population of Ouagadougou was estimated at 32,077 in 1953 and 59,126 in 1962, i.e., two years after independence. When the country got independent on August 5, 1960, Ouagadougou became the capital of the country. As a result, important socio-economic and political decisions were made there and then implemented throughout the country. Today, its population is estimated at about 1,2 million people (Mairie-Ouaga 2005) representing 40% of urban dwellers in the entire country (MITH 2003:5). Its population kept growing at a rate of 9.8% per year and a density of about 624.9/km² (Mairie-Ouaga 2005) leading to the emergence of new districts such as Ouaga 2000, and the renewal of old districts like the ones oncerned by Project ZACA, namely: Zangouettin, Kamsaonghin, Kiedpaloghin, Peuloghin, Koulouba and Camp Fonctionnaire (Le Pays 2002 n° 2686; Ouédraogo 2005). The neighborhoods concerned by Project ZACA: As noted by (MITH 2003; Ouédraogo 2005), various ethnic groups, predominantly foreign nationals from neighboring countries, about 50 thousand people lived in Zangouettin, Kamsaonghin, Kiedpaloghin, Peuloghin, Koulouba and Camp Fonctionnaire, the areas concerned by the project. Their residents were mostly Muslims with other religious communities as Christians and traditional religion practitioners. They shared the daily routine of city life and its socio-economic realities. There was a peaceful cohabitation among the different ethnic groups and religious denominations (Ouédraogo 2005: 29). Being next to the central market, Rood Woko, the residents developed incomes generating activities by repairing scooters or motorbikes, selling goods by the roadsides, managing restaurants and small kiosks. However, as indicated by Ouédraogo (2005: 29) and MITH (2003:20), there was a total disorder in the area, narrow streets, bad smells from used water and garbage carelessly thrown on the streets. There was a general lack of sanitation. Houses were mostly mud-built and very old (Skinner 1974: 151) hosting extended family members or were rented by sex-workers or local small shopkeepers. With such incomes, the heads of households were able to fend for their families. Drug sales and other illegal activities were practiced by the jobless youth. Roadside trades were common and they sometimes disturbed traffic. The area was 75% electrified, more than 50% of the inhabitants used to get their water supply from public pumps and 40% were supplied by the government owned water Distribution Company. Most households owned traditional latrines (MITH 2003: 20). These poor housing conditions sharply contrasted with the neighboring modern buildings hosting hotels, consulting firms, International Organizations and NGOs, modern restaurants, administrative centers and banks such as ECOBANK and Bank Of Africa (BOA). In addition, land tenure was a serious problem in the area as the local inhabitants sold their properties in violation of the national land regulations, inheritance issues, multiple ownerships and lack of clear deeds indicating actual ownership to the property. This was partly due to the fact that some of the residents were given the land by the Mossi King as a present via the Tengsobdamba, i.e. traditional landowners (Ouédraogo 2005: 62). As the area attracted more business people because of its proximity to the central market, land speculation began to be a major concern for the local government (MITH 2003: 23). All these poor housing conditions urged the local government to implement its urban renewal Project ZACA. Its overall objectives include the following: building a modern and operational urban center; improving the city image; creating employment opportunities by investing in the project area; favoring the development of increased commercial activities in the project area by ensuring better security conditions for people and goods; contributing gradually to the change of mentalities as well as to the development of urban management culture (MITH 2003; Ouédraogo 2005). This situation led to the massive displacement of the local populations with heavy socio-cultural and economic consequences.
 During the Revolution, Upper Volta became Burkina Faso on August 4, 1984 resulting into the change of the national flag indicating a break with imperialism and colonialism.  The term Jula or Dioula means trader, but it is also used to refer the Mande language spoken in West Africa. http://www.mairie-ouaga.bf/Vie%20Municipale/frame5.htm (Accessed on September 5, 2006)  Ministère des Infrastructures, des Transports et de l’Habitat (Ministry of Infrastructures, Transportations and Housing). It's now referred to as the Ministry of Habitat & Urbanism The central market was closed because due to a fire incident in 2003 but it’ was rehabilitated and re-opened officially in April 2009.  Today, the situation has slightly changed because the State is the owner of the land and responsible for its regulation.  Other historical books indicate Ouagadougou was conquered on September 1st, 1896 (See Fourchard